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GLOSSARY


 

Go to letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

A

• Abrasion – An abrasion on a diamond occurs when small nicks are present along the facet junctions. These nicks produce blurred white lines instead of sharp crisp edges.

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• Asscher Cut Diamonds – The Asscher cut diamond is a square shaped diamond similar to the emerald cut, however the deep cut corners present on an Asscher cut stone make the diamond perfectly square with a shape similar to an octagon. The Asscher cut diamond is named after its founders, the Asscher Brothers, and each diamond is exclusively patented and are only produced by the Royal Asscher Diamond Company based in the USA.

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•Alloy – This is a mixture of 2 or more metals, for example 9ct gold is an alloy because the gold has been mixed with other metals to enhance its strength and durability.

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B

• Bar Setting – A diamond (or gemstone) set between to parallel bars where the sides of the stones are left open.

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• Baguette Cut Diamonds – The Baguette shape diamond most closely resembles an emerald cut but is much smaller in size and is available in both straight and tapered shapes.

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• Bead Setting – A technique used to set stones into metal. Beads of metal are formed around the stone offering security while being pleasing to the eye.

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• Bearded girdle or Bearding – Tiny, numerous, hair like fractures extending into the stone.

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• Bevelled – The name given to an angled section on the surface of an item of jewellery, such as a ring.

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• Bezel – A bezel is the rim which encompasses and fastens a jewel, watch crystal, lens or other object.

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• Blemish – Surface imperfection external to the Diamond.

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• Blood Diamonds – Blood diamonds also known as conflict diamonds are diamonds which are mined in a war zone and traded illegally to fund conflict. The adoption of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme by the diamond industry has helped to eliminate the trading of conflict diamonds. Any diamonds which are transported must be accompanied by a Kimberly Process Certificate to prove that the diamonds are government validated. At Aurus we guarantee that any diamonds we supply have been purchased from legitimate sources not involved in funding conflict and are in compliance with UN regulations.

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• Box Setting – In this setting the gemstone is enclosed in a “box”, the edges of which are pressed down onto the girdle of the stone to hold it securely in place. The surface of the setting is smooth and less likely to be caught and snagged.

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• Brilliance – This is the sparkle that is seen in a gemstone when it is held up to the light. It is caused by the reflection of “white”light back from a gemstone, both from its surface and from within. The more “white” light reflected back, the greater the brilliance. The brilliance of a gemstone is influenced by its cut, its proportions, its polish, its transparency and its physical and chemical make-up.

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• Brilliant Cut Diamonds – The brilliant cut diamond is a round, cone shaped diamond and is by far the most popular and most researched diamond shape. The stone is cut in such a way as to produce numerous reflecting facets which produces an exceptional brilliance within the stone. Due to the cone shape of the diamond there is enhanced light reflection through the top of the diamond which adds to the brilliance of the stone.

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• Brushed Finish – A textured finish on jewellery, where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface of the metal.

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C

• Cavity – An inclusion consisting of a large or deep opening in the stone.

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• Carat (gold) – Carats identify how much pure gold can be found in one item of jewellery - for example, 24K (carat) gold is pure gold 9kt gold is 375 parts per 1000 gold with 625 parts made up of other mixed metals.

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• Channel Setting – A channel setting has two long tracks of precious metal that hold a row of gemstones side-by-side.

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• Chevron Setting – In this style of setting, “V” shaped claws hold the gemstone in place. It is used at the points of marquise cut gemstones.

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• Chip – A tiny piece missing caused by normal wear and tear, or by cutting.

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• Clarity – Clarity is one of the Four C’s along with Cut, Colour and Carat which help to classify diamonds. Clarity is graded based on inclusions or flaws found within the stone. Every diamond will contain some flaws which make each diamond unique. The number and size of these flaws found within a stone will affect the clarity.

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• Cloud – A group of tiny white inclusions which result in a milky or cloudy appearance.

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• Collet – The part of the ring that holds the stone e.g. a four claw, v-sided collet.

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• Coloured Diamonds – Coloured diamonds are less popular than the clear diamonds which are commonly used in jewellery today.

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• Cushion Cut Diamonds – The cushion cut is an antique cut of diamond which was common in the 19th and 20th century. This cut of diamond although not as brilliant as most of the more modern cuts certainly stands out as a more classic and romantic cut of diamond.

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• Culet – The culet is the point located at the bottom of a diamond. This point can sometimes be polished into a flat facet to ensure the tip is not damaged or chipped. Most culets are not visible to the naked eye, however, the size of the culet should be detailed on the certificate provided with the diamond. Most diamonds these days have no or a very small culet as the ring mount usually protects the point of the diamond from any damage.

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• Carat (ct) – Carat is one of the Four C’s along with Cut, Colour and Clarity which help to classify diamonds. The carat of a diamond is the weight of the diamond and is not to be confused with size. A diamond may look smaller, however, the weight may be greater which would therefore increase the carat weight of the stone.

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• Cluster Setting – A cluster setting consists of a central stone surrounded by many smaller stones.

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• Certification – If a diamond is certified it will be supplied along with a certificate which will guarantee the quality and specifications of the diamond you have chosen. You will tend to pay more for a certified diamond. At Aurus, all our diamonds over 0.30ct are certified by one of the leading diamond grading laboratories of the world – GIA, IGI and HRD.

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• Colour – Colour is one of the Four C’s along with Cut, Clarity and Carat which help to classify diamonds. Colour is graded from D through to Z with D being the whitest.

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• Conflict diamonds – Conflict diamonds also known as blood diamonds are diamonds which are mined in a war zone and traded illegally to fund conflict. The adoption of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme by the diamond industry has helped to eliminate the trading of conflict diamonds. Any diamonds which are transported must be accompanied by a Kimberly Process Certificate to prove that the diamonds are government validated. At Aurus we guarantee that any diamonds we supply have been purchased from legitimate sources not involved in funding conflict and are in compliance with UN regulations.

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• Crown – The upper part of the diamond above the girdle. It consists of a large flat area on top called a table, and several facets below it.

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• Cubic Zicornia – Cubic zirconia is the most manufactured lookalike for diamond. At Aurus, we do not sell any cubic zirconias.

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• Cut – Cut is one of the Four C’s along with Colour, Clarity and Carat which help to classify diamonds. There are many different cuts of diamond and the better the cut the greater the cost. A diamond should be cut with good proportions to allow maximum sparkle and brilliance.

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D

• Diamond – Diamonds are naturally occurring stones which are formed by exposing carbon to extreme pressure and heat. Diamond is the hardest material and earth and has many uses not just in the jewellery industry.

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E

• Emerald Cut Diamonds – Originally a method for cutting Emeralds the emerald cut is rectangular in shape with broad step like facets. The emerald cut and has a large flat surface, also known as the table, which enhances the clarity of the diamond.

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• Engagement rings – Engagement rings are traditionally worn on the third finger of the left hand and are usually given to signify the intention to be married.

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• Eternity Ring – A gemstone set ring often used to show a long-term commitment of love. Although often bought as an accompaniment to the wedding and engagement ring, it can be worn on its own as a dress piece. Eternity rings come in several distinctive designs.

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• Extra Facet – A facet placed without regard for symmetry and not required by the cutting style.

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F

• Faceted Girdle – Sometimes cutters polish the girdle into 32 facets.

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• Facets – Are the faces on a diamond which determine its shape and cut.

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• Fancy Diamond – A diamond with an attractive natural bodycolor other than light yellow or light brown.

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• Feather – A feather in a diamond is a type of inclusion within the stone. In a stone of good clarity a feather can sometimes be difficult to see.

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• Filigree – The fine lace-like decoration sometimes found on jewellery. It is created from delicately arranged and intertwined precious metal wires.

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• Fire – The term used to describe the flashes of rainbow colours in gemstones as a result of the dispersion of light by the stone.

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• Four C’s – The four C’s are Cut, Clarity, Colour and Carat and determine the most important characteristics of diamonds.

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• Flaw – A flaw can appear either on the surface or within a diamond and can reduce the clarity of a diamond.

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• Fracture – Is a crack which occurs within a diamond and is visible when held up to the light.

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G

• Girdle – The girdle is a thin band which surrounds a diamond at its widest point and is situated between the crown and the pavilion.

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• Graduated Mount – Is a ring set with 3 or more stones. The outermost diamonds are the smallest and gradually increase in size towards the centre stone.

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• Gypsy Setting – Stones are sunk into holes so they are flush with the ring's surface.

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H

• Hallmark – This is the authorised stamp from an assay office which is found on items of gold, silver and platinum. The hallmark indicates the authenticity and standard of the precious metal and is awarded after independent tests by the official assay offices at London, Birmingham, Sheffield or Edinburgh.

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• Hardness – Mineral's resistance to scratching on a smooth surface. Mohs scale of relative hardness consists of 10 minerals, each scratching all those below it in scale and being scratched by all those above it.

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• Heart Cut Diamonds – As the name suggests are diamonds which are cut into the shape of a heart. This cut of diamond can be considered to be the most romantic of cuts and produces excellent sparkle and brilliance.

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I

• Illusion Set – A disc of patterned precious metal, usually white gold, which is placed in the top of a setting. A gemstone, most commonly a diamond, is then placed into the centre of the disc. When you look at the gemstone surrounded by the disc, it gives the illusion of it being a larger stone.

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• Included Crystal – A mineral crystal contained in a diamond.

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• Inclusions – inclusions are imperfections that are found within a diamond. Most inclusions cannot be located with the naked eye but dependant on the number and severity of the imperfections these are usually visible immediately with the aid on an eyeglass. Inclusions within a diamond can affect the clarity of the stone.

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• Internal Graining – Internal indications of irregular crystal growth. May appear milky, like faint lines or streaks, or may be colored or reflective.

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• Irradiated diamond – A diamond which has been exposed to radiation.

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K

• Kimberly Process, The – The Kimberly Process is a process which certifies the origin of rough diamonds to ensure they are not sourced from areas of conflict. The Kimberley process was designed to stop the trading of ‘conflict diamonds’ and ensuring that these diamonds do not enter the mainstream market.

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L

• Laser Inscription – A unique reference laser inscribed onto the girdle. This number and letter sequence will be documented in your certificate (see term above).

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• Loupe – Magnifying glass usually of 10X.

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M

• Marquise Cut Diamonds – A marquise shaped stone is a long multi faceted stone with pointed ends.

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• Matte Finish – A frosted, non-shiny surface effect on jewellery.

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• Melee – Small Diamonds less than .20 carat.

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• Micro Pave – Micro pave refers to any small, closely set stones.

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• Mohs scale – The ten-point scale of mineral hardness, keyed arbitrarily to the minerals talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, and diamond.

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• Moissanite – Is similar to cubic zirconia and aims to overtake this stone as the most popular lookalike for diamond. At Aurus, we do not sell any moissanites.

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N

• Natural – Part of the rough Diamond remaining on the Diamond, having survived the cutting process. This is usually the sign of a good cutter attempting to maximize the weight retention of the rough Diamond.

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• Needle – A long, thin included crystal which looks like a tiny rod.

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• Nick – A notch near the girdle or a facet edge.

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O

• Old European Cut – Early round cut similar to the Round Brilliant Cut, but carrying a very small table and heavy crown. Not as popular today because it does not return the same brilliance as the modern brilliant.

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• Oval Cut Diamonds – The oval cut diamond is a similar cut to the brilliant cut, it has the same sparkle and brilliance but is more oval in shape.

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P

• Pave Setting – The pave setting is a number of diamonds which are set close together covering the surface onto which they are mounted much like the blocks of a pavement.

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• Pinpoints – Miniscule spots internal to a Diamond. A cluster of pinpoints can form a cloud.

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• Platinum – Platinum is the most popular and at the moment the most expensive metal for jewellery. Platinum is a white metal and is very durable. The most popular alloy of Platinum used for jewellery has 950 parts per thousand of Platinum commonly referred to as 950 Platinum.

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• Princess Cut Diamonds – Princess cut diamonds are usually square in shape and this shape is the second most popular after brilliant cut.

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• Pavilion – The pavilion on a diamond is located in between the girdle and the culet and is the lower part on a diamond.

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• Pear Cut Diamonds – Pear cut diamonds are sometimes referred to as teardrop diamonds due to the shape of this diamond. The pear cut is a mixture of round brilliant and marquise.

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• Polish Lines – Tiny parallel lines left by polishing. Fine parallel ridges confined to a single facet, caused by crystal structure irregularities, or tiny parallel polished grooves produced by irregularities in the scaife surface.

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• Prong Setting (claw) – Metal claws raise a stone to allow in the most light; four or six prongs are common.

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R

• Radiant Cut Diamonds – Radiant cut diamonds is are often square or rectangular in shape and has over 70 facets which contribute to its excellent brilliance.

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• Reflection – When light bounces back off the surface of something, such as a diamond. When combined with refraction it produces a diamond’s fire.

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• Refraction – When light is bent as it enters a gemstone, such as a diamond. A stone’s cut and clarity can influence its refraction. When combined with reflection it produces a diamond’s fire.

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• Ring Setting – There are many different ring settings available and the term ring setting is used to describe the head of the ring where the stone will sit.

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• Rough Diamonds – Rough diamonds are the natural, uncut, unpolished form of diamonds.

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• Ring Sizing – Ring sizes are measured in millimetres and assigned a letter in the UK to signify the size. The diameter of the finger and the size of the knuckle need to be taken into consideration when deciding on the ring size.

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• Rhodium – A white metallic element. A rhodium finish is usually applied to white gold to give it greater and brighter whiteness.

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• Rough Girdle – A grainy or pitted girdle surface, often with nicks.

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• Round Brilliant cut – The most common cut containing 58 facets. Also the most brilliant cut, in terms of most efficient use of light to increase brilliance and fire, hence the name.

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• Rub Over Setting – This type of setting surrounds the diamond fully and follows the shape of the mount.

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S

• Satin Finish – A textured finish on the surface of precious metal which has a soft lustre rather than a shine. It can be produced by brushing, sandblasting or chemically altering the surface.

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• Shank – The round body of the ring that encircles the finger.

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• Shoulders – The upper part of a ring that joins the shank and the setting. They are often decorated, set with gemstones, or have a v-like split in them.

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• Solitaire – A ring set with a sole eye-catching stone, commonly a diamond.

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• Solitaire – From the word solitary, solitaire is the term given to a stone mounted alone on a piece of jewellery.

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• Setting – Refers to how a stone is set into a piece of jewellery, there are many different types of setting available to best suit the size and shape of the stone.

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• Step-Cut – A cut in which the facets are parallel to the girdle of the gemstone.

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• Surface Graining – Surface indication of structural irregularity. May resemble faint facet junction lines, or cause a grooved or wavy surface, often cross facet junctions.

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T

• Tiffany Setting – A round six-pronged claw setting. The claws are long and slender and flare out from the base of the setting. It is a style of setting made popular by the jewellers Tiffany & Co of New York.

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• Trillion Cut Diamonds – Trillion cut diamonds are triangular in shape and are one of the most unusual cuts of diamond.

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• Twinning Wisp – A cloudy area produced by crystal structure distortion; usually associated with twinning planes.

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W

• Wedding Ring – A band of precious metal, usually gold or platinum, used to symbolise the union of two people in marriage. The band can be plain, patterned, two coloured gold, diamond set, have bevelled edges and even shaped to fit comfortably with an engagement ring.

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• Weight – The weight of a diamond is measured in carats (ct).

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